The Assessment of the Implementation of the Concept of Sustainable Development on the European Energy Market
Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology
The energy market is one of the determinants of striving for the balance between the economic and natural development. In order to assess the implementation of the concept of sustainable development on the European energy market, the selected data associated with the energy market, having stimulative or non-stimulative impact on the natural and social environment, have been subjected to the analysis. Finally have been specified 29 variables in the area of production and consumption with a breakdown by renewable and conventional energy, where the former ones have been defined as those stimulating sustainable development whereas the latter as the ones threatening ecological balance. The division of the variables into stimulants and destimulants has allowed to carry out an assessment of the potential of the EU countries in the category of the implementation of the concept of sustainable development on the energy market.
The assessment of the implementation of the concept of sustainable development on the European energy markets has been made using the assumed statistical analyses. The use of factor analysis and cluster analysis in relation to the identified variables has allowed to isolate the groups of the EU countries whose energy markets are more or less favorable for the implementation of the concept of sustainable development.
As a result of the conducted factor analysis, there have been extracted 7 main indicators which are stimulants and destimulants in their nature. The analyzing the share of the analyzed countries in individual groups by the factors stimulating their sustainable development associated with the use of renewable energy, there are observed four main clusters of the countries. According to results, Spain, France, Italy and Germany, Denmark, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Sweden and Norway, are characterized by the highest potential of renewable sources of energy as well as their use.
The division of the countries into groups by the factors destimulating sustainable development on the energy market allows observed that the vast majority of the EU countries use less energy coming from non-renewable sources and nuclear energy. At the same time, these countries are also less energy-intensive, which results from the implementation of innovation and energy-efficient solutions in industry, transport and services.
The division of the EU countries by the energy market factors stimulating and not stimulating their sustainable development, allowed to differentiate and assess the efforts in the field of conducting the eco-friendly and pro-social energy policy. The energy markets, identified as the ones which are the most favorable for the natural environment, consume a substantial portion of energy coming from conventional sources of its generation (Spain, Germany, France, Italy). The optimal group of the countries which both maximize the opportunities of renewable sources of energy and minimize the negative impact of its conventional sources are Denmark, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Sweden and Norway. These countries are in the group which implements sustainable development through generating environmentally-friendly energy, rarely uses non-renewable fuels and shows low energy consumption in the sector of industry, transport and services, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.